Wednesday, May 9, 2018

You never win a person with an argument.

Life is simply not about winning an argument or proving a point to another person . You never win over a person with an argument. You cant win over people with polemics. You can win over people by listening to them, and genuine in your words and deeds. You can win over people when we go beyond the prisons of our self, bloated ego, pride and prejudices. We can make a difference when we share our resources and care for other human beings with a genuine sense of empathy. We simply cant teach any lessons to anyone. We can learn lessons ourselves. Life is too short to hate, settle score and take revenge. Graves are full of smart people who thought themselves as indispensable with lots of power, and pride.

അധികമായാൽ അമൃതും വിഷം.


എല്ലാത്തരം തീവ്രതയും പലപ്പോഴും നമ്മേ കൊണ്ടെത്തിക്കുന്നത് ഒരു തരം ഹിംസയിലാണ്. ആ ഹിംസ ചിലപ്പോൾ സ്വന്തം നേർക്കോ മറ്റുള്ളവരുടെ നേർക്കോ ആകാം. ഇങ്ങനെയ്യുള്ള തീവ്ര വിശ്വാസ, മത, രാഷ്ട്രീയ, ഭാഷ,, വംശ വിചാര- വികാരങ്ങൾ മനുഷ്യനെ പലപ്പോഴും എത്തിക്കുന്നത് പല തരം തീവ്ര ഡോഗ്മാകളിലായിരിക്കും.
ഡോഗ്മ ചിന്തകളെ തടഞ്ഞു അടച്ചു കൂട്ടിലാക്കും. പിന്നെ അവർ ' തത്തമ്മേ പൂച്ച പൂച്ച ' എന്ന് പറഞ്ഞു കൊണ്ടിരിക്കും.. അതിനപ്പുറം അവരുടെ ചിന്തകളെ പറത്തി വിടാനുള്ള സാധ്യത നഷ്ട്ടപെടുത്തും. പിന്നെ ചിന്തകൾക്ക് തിമിരം ബാധിച്ചു ആരെയും വേട്ട നായ്ക്കളെ പോലെ ആക്രമിക്കുവാൻ അവർക്ക് മടിയില്ല. സ്വന്തം ശരികളിൽ നൂറു ശതമാനം ബോദ്ധ്യമുള്ളവർക്ക് പലപ്പോഴും മറ്റുള്ള ചിന്തകളോടും ആളുകളോടും അസഹിഷ്ണുതയും വെറുപ്പുമായിരിക്കും. അങ്ങനെയാണ് മതത്തിന്റെയും ദൈവത്തിന്റെയും പേരിൽ അവർക്ക് കൊല്ലാനും വെട്ടാനും മടിയില്ലാത്തതു.
അങ്ങനെയാണ് രാഷ്ട്രീയ ലോയൽറ്റി അസഹിഷ്ണുതയായി വളർന്നു സ്വന്തം ആശയക്കുട്ടിന് അപ്പുറമുള്ളവരെ വാക്കുകൾ കൊണ്ട് പ്രവർത്തികൊണ്ടും ആക്രമിക്കുന്നത്. അങ്ങനെയാണ് ജാതി ഭ്രാന്തും ദേശീയ ഭ്രാന്തും ഭാഷ ഭ്രാന്തും വംശീയ ഭ്രാന്തും മൂത്തു എന്ത്‌ ഹിംസയും ചെയ്യുവാൻ മടികാത്തത്. അവരുടെ മനസ്ഥിതി തന്നെ വെറുപ്പിലൂന്നിയായിരിക്കും.
തീവ്ര മത വികാരം പോലെ അപകടകാര്യമാണ് തീവ്ര സെക്കുലർ വിചാര വികാരവും. അതു പോലെ തീവ്ര യുക്തി വാദം. കാരണം ഇതെല്ലാം അവരുടെ 101% ശരികളിൽ ബോധ്യമായി അതിനു അപ്പുറം ഉള്ളവർ ശരികേടാണ് എന്നുറപ്പിക്കുന്നവരാണ്. അവരുടെ 101% ശരികൾക്കു അപ്പുറമുള്ളവരെ ശത്രുതയോടെ കാണുന്നവർ കൂടി വരുന്നു. അവരുടെ ചിന്തകളെ സ്വയം ചോദ്യം ചെയ്യാനോ വ്യത്യസ്ത്ത ചിന്തകളെ അംഗീകരിക്കുവാനോയുള്ള മനന ശേഷി പലർക്കും ഇല്ലാതെയാകും.
തീവ്രമായ പ്രണയവും സ്നേഹവും പലരെയും പൊസ്സസ്സീവ് ആക്കി അത് ഒന്നുകിൽ സ്വന്തം നേർക്കോ അല്ലെങ്കിൽ മറ്റുള്ളവരുടെ നേർക്കോ ഹിംസയായി വളരും. അതു പലപ്പോഴും അക്രമത്തിലേക്കും ആത്മഹത്യയിലേക്കും കൊലപാതകങ്ങളിലേക്കു പോലും പോകുന്ന ഒരു ഉന്മാദമാകും.
തീയുടെ ഉപയോഗമാണ് മനുഷ്യന്റെ ആദ്യ കണ്ടെത്തിലിൽ ഒന്ന്. തീയില്ലെങ്കിൽ മനുഷ്യനു ഭക്ഷണമില്ല. തീയാണ് തണുപ്പത്ത് ചൂട് ഏകുന്നത്. തീ വെളിച്ചമാണ്. തീ ശുദ്ധം വരുത്തുന്നതാണ്. പക്ഷേ തീ ഏറ്റവും അപകടകരമായ ഒന്നാണ്. തീ സൃഷ്ട്ടിയും സ്ഥിതി യും സംഹാരവുമാണ്. അതു ജീവിക്കാനും കൊല്ലാനും ഉപയോഗിക്കാം. നമ്മുടെ ചിന്തകളും തീപ്പൊരികൾ പോലെയാണ്.
ഈ കാര്യത്തിൽ ബുദ്ധൻ പറഞ്ഞ ഡിറ്റാച്മെൻറ് ചിന്തയുടെയും സ്വാന്ത്ര്യത്തിലേക്കുമുള്ള വഴിയാണ്. മാത്രമല്ല ലോകവും ശാസ്ത്രവുമെല്ലാം മാറ്റിയത് ' ഡൗട്ടിങ് തോമസ് ' ആയ മനുഷ്യരാണ്. കേൾക്കുന്നതും കാണുന്നതും, പറഞ്ഞു പഠിപ്പിക്കുന്നതും അപ്പടി വിഴുങ്ങാതെ Why എന്ന ചോദ്യം നമ്മൾ ചോദിച്ചു തുടങ്ങുന്നിടത്താണ് ചിന്തകളുടെയും പുതുക്കലിന്റെയും പുതിയ അരുവികളും നദികളുമുണ്ടാകുന്നത്. Hence we need to challenge our own pet thinking, attitudes and learn to ask questions ourselves. Many things which we think 100 percent true may not be so.
വാൽകഷ്ണം. ഇതു എന്റെ സുഹൃത്തു Murali Vettath ന്റെ പോസ്റ്റിൽ ഒരു വരി എഴുതി തുടങ്ങിയാതാണ്. അദ്ദേഹത്തിന്റെ പോസ്റ്റ്‌ ആദ്യ കമന്റിൽ

സര്‍ക്കാരിനെ വിമര്‍ശിക്കാന്‍ എല്ലാ ജനങ്ങള്‍ക്കും അവകാശമുണ്ട് .

സർക്കാർ ആരുടെയും കുടുംബ സ്വത്തോ , ഒരു പാർട്ടിയുടെ ഒസ്യത്തോ അല്ലെന്ന് ആദ്യം തിരിച്ചറിയുക .സർക്കാർ എല്ലാ ജനങ്ങളുടേതുമാണ് . മന്ത്രിമാർ പബ്ലിക് സെർവെൻറ് ആണ് പാർട്ടി സെർവെൻറ് അല്ല .സർക്കാർ എന്ന ഏർപ്പാട് നടക്കുന്നത് ഈ നാട്ടിലെ ജനങ്ങളുടെ നികുതി പണം കൊണ്ടാണ് .സർക്കാരിനോട് ചോദ്യം ചോദിക്കാനും അൽകൗണ്ടബിലിറ്റി ആവശ്യപ്പെടാനും എല്ലാ ജനങ്ങൾക്കും ധാർമ്മിക അവകാശവും ഉത്തരവാദിത്തവുമുണ്ട് .സർക്കാർ റെസ്പോൺസീവ് , അക്കൗണ്ടബിൾ , ഇൻക്ലസിവ് അല്ലെങ്കിൽ ജനങ്ങൾ പ്രധാന മന്ത്രിയോടും മുഖ്യ മന്ത്രിയോടും ചോദിക്കും അതാണ് ജനായത്ത വ്യവസ്ഥയുടെ കാതൽ . 

പക്ഷേ ആരെങ്കിലും സര്‍ക്കാരിനെ വിമര്‍ശിച്ചാലോ , മുഖ്യ മന്ത്രിയെ വിമര്‍ശിച്ചാലോ ഭരണ അധികാര പാര്‍ട്ടികളുടെ അനുഭാവികള്‍ സംഘടിതമായി വിമര്‍ശിച്ചവര്‍കെതിരെ ആരോപണ ശരങ്ങള്‍ എയ്തു തുടങ്ങും . തിരെഞ്ഞെടുപ്പില്‍ ഏതു പാര്‍ട്ടിയുടെ പേരില്‍ നിന്നാലും തിരെഞ്ഞെടുക്കപെട്ട് കഴിഞ്ഞാല്‍ അവര്‍ എല്ലാ ജങ്ങങ്ങളുടെയും പ്രധി നിധികളാണ് . എല്ലാ ജനങ്ങളോടും ഉത്തര വാദപെട്ടിരിക്കുന്നു .

 അശ്വതി ജ്വാല  എന്ന സാമൂഹിക പ്രവര്‍ത്തക സര്‍ക്കാരിനെയും പോലീസ് നിസ്സന്ഗതയെയും വിമര്‍ശിച്ചു എന്നതിന്‍റെ പേരില്‍  സംഘിടിതമായാണ് അശ്വതിയെ ചിലർ ആക്രമിക്കുന്നത് . അവർ പിരിച്ചു .അവർ കാറു വാങ്ങി .അവർ വിദേശ യാത്ര നടത്തി .അവർ സ്ഥലം വാങ്ങാൻ അഡ്വാൻസ് നൽകി . ഇതിൽ എല്ലാം എന്ത് 'ക്രിമിനൽ ' കുറ്റമാണുള്ളത് ? ഇവിടുത്തെ രാഷ്‌ടീയ പാർട്ടി നേതാക്കളെല്ലാം സ്ഥിരം ചെയ്യുന്ന ഏർപ്പാടുകളാണിത് .

ഇവിടെ എത്രയോ പേർ എന്തിനൊക്കെ കാശ് പിരിക്കുന്നുണ്ട്.? ഏറ്റവും കൂടുതൽ കാശ് പിരിവ് നടത്തുന്നത് ഇവിടുത്തെ രാഷ്ട്രീയ പാർട്ടിക്കാരാണ്. അതിൽ തന്നെ കൂടുതൽ പിരിക്കുന്നത് ഭരണത്തിൽ ഉള്ള രാഷ്ട്രീയക്കാരാണ്. അവരാരും ഈ പിരിവ് കൊടുക്കുന്ന ആർക്കും കണക്ക് കൊടുക്കാറില്ല. അത് എങ്ങനെ എവിടെ ആർക്കു വേണ്ടി ചിലവാക്കുന്നു എന്നും പറയില്ല. ഒരു ട്രാൻസ്പെരൻസിയുമില്ല. ഇപ്പോൾ പാർട്ടി സമ്മേളങ്ങൾ ഫൈവ് സ്റ്റാർ ഏർപ്പാടുകളാണ്? അശ്വതി ജ്വാല പണം പിരിച്ചു എന്ന് പറഞ്ഞു കേസ് എടുക്കുന്നവർ കേരളത്തിൽ എത്ര പേരുടെ പേരിൽ കേസെടുക്കും? ഇപ്പോൾ അധികാര കസേരകളിൽ ഇരിക്കുന്ന മാന്യൻമാരെല്ലാം കാശു പിരിച്ചു പുട്ടടിച്ചു വളർന്നല്ലേ നേതാക്കളായത്? മറ്റുള്ളവരുടെ കാശ് പിരിച്ചു നേതാവായർക്ക് എന്ന് തൊട്ടാണ് കാശു പിരിക്കുന്നത് ക്രിമിനൽ കുറ്റമാകുന്നത്?

അവർക്ക് ജ്വാല എന്ന സംഘടനയുണ്ടെങ്കിൽ അതിന്റ ഓഡിറ്റഡ് സ്റ്റേറ്റ്മെന്റ് കൊടുക്കേണ്ടിടത്താണ് കൊടുക്കേണ്ടത് .
യഥാർത്ഥത്തിൽ ഈ കൂട്ട അക്രമണത്തിന്ന് കാരണം ഇവിടുത്തെ പോലീസിന്റെ നിസ്സംഗതയെക്കുറിച്ചും നാട് ഭരിക്കുന്ന മുഖ്യ മന്ത്രിയെക്കാണാൻ സാധിച്ചില്ല എന്ന് പറഞ്ഞതാണ് .
അത് കേട്ടപാടെ ഭരിക്കുന്ന പാർട്ടിയുടെ ന്യായീകരണ വിഭാഗവും ആക്രമണ വിഭാഗവും കൂടി അശ്വതിയെ കരി വാരി തേച്ചു ആക്രമിക്കാൻ തുടങ്ങി . ഇതേപോലെ സംഘ പരിവാർ കാണിക്കുമ്പോൾ ' ഫാസിസം ' , ' ഫാസിസം ' എന്ന് വിളിച്ചുകൂവുന്നവർ തന്നെയാണ് അസഹിഷ്ണതയോടെ അവരെയും ' ചാരിറ്റി ' യെയും ആക്രമിക്കുന്നത് . ചിലർ ചാരിറ്റിയും ജനകീയ ഭക്ഷണ ശാലയുമൊക്ക തുടങ്ങി സാധുത പിടിച്ചു പറ്റാൻ പോകുമ്പോൾ അത് ' മഹ ത്തരം ' 'വിപ്ലവകരം ' ' ചെറുപ്പക്കാരിയായ ഒരു സ്ത്രീ അത് ചെയ്‌താൽ അത് ' തട്ടിപ്പ് ' ' ദുരൂഹം '. ചിലർ കാശു പിരിച്ചാൽ അത് 'രാഷ്ട്രീയ ' ധാർമ്മികം ' പുരോഗമനം ' ' ജനകീയം ' വേറെ ആരെങ്കിലും അത് ചെയ്‌താൽ ' തട്ടിപ്പ് ' ' അരാഷ്ട്രീയം '.
പ്രശ്നമെന്താണെന്ന് വച്ചാൽ പഴയ ശൈലിയിൽ ഉള്ള കടന്നാക്രമണം വിപരീത ഫലമായിരിക്കുമുണ്ടാക്കുന്നതു . വിയോജിക്കുന്നവരെയും വിമർശിക്കുന്നവരെയും വിരോധികളും ശത്രുക്കളുമായികണ്ടു ആക്രമിക്കാൻ പോയാൽ you will push your friends and potential allies in to opponents camp .ഇത് പോലുള്ള അസഹിഷ്ണ്ത കൂടി ആക്രമിക്കപ്പെടുമ്പോഴാണ് ആണ് പലരും സംഘ പരിവാർ പാളയത്തിൽ എത്തിച്ചേരുന്നത്.
മുള്ളു കൊണ്ടേടെക്കുന്നതിനെ പിക്കാസ് കൊണ്ടോ തൂമ്പ കൊണ്ടോ എടുത്താൽ വിപരീതഫലമാണ്‌ണ്ടാക്കുന്നത് എന്ന ബേസിക് കാര്യം ഉപദേശിക്കുവാൻ ആരുമില്ലേ ?.ഒരുപാട് ഉപദേശകർ ഉള്ളത് കൊണ്ടായിരിക്കും .
പൂച്ചക്കാര് മണി കെട്ടും

Pet Myths of Syrian Christians

 The problem with many of the folklore history of  "Syrian' Christians about their ' brhaminical past' or the arrival of St Thomas, the disciple of Jesus etc are that they are more of  pet cultivated myths evolved,  rather than based on a historical evidence.  Having said that there are evidence of a community emerging over the last  1700 years or even more. There are few valid indicators to this : )Indo Roman Trade with South India before 2000 years. Arikkamadu excavations and Pattanam excavations b) Arrival of Kanai Thomman as refugees when there was persecution of jewish christians c) The use of Syriac Language, derivative of Aramaic language spoken during the time of Jesus by his speech community . The language dramatically declined in14 century after the ascent of Ottoman Empire and spread of Arabic. The language is the liturgical language of few ancient churches and the prevalence of this ancient language and suriyani malayalam etc point to the existence of early church links in Kerala .
The community which was known as Nasrene thrived in ancient Alexandria and there is evidence of trade relationship between the coastal region of present day Kerala . The chances are the community evolved over a period hundred or more years of time through trade acculturation and gradual socio - religious cultural transitions . Trade acculturation involves genetic as well as linguistics / cultural transitions. The community called Nazranies in Kerala seems to have emerged through multiple forms of amalgamation of traders and indigenous communities of various kinds over few hundred years .
The term Syrian Christian was only used by the Dutch in 18 century only. The nazrani community largely consisted of small traders and marginal farmers, though there were few e rich merchants/traders and those who held lots of land . The transformation of the community began only from the 19 century where they got more opportunity to modern education and happened to be a community negotiated with modern professional options , largely due to early acculturation with missionaries, largely CMS .
The term syrian christian today is more of proxy caste signifier of those who don't belong to castes eligible for reservation .They spread across various denominations .Because of their relatively socio economic status largely due to early access to land and modern education and self perceptions of caste hierarchy , they were not included in OBC list and hence considered along with 'upper caste '.
However , there is no evidence for the so called Brahmin ' links nor the about the arrival of Thomas , disciple of Jesus. However the Mar Thoma cult might have come with early trade link as Thomas was supposed to be in charge of East . While those Mar thoma cult and communities disappeared in most the lands of its origin in the 7 and 8 centuries after the advent of Islam, the Nazrani community and Mar Thoma cult survived in Kerala as it was a far away community emerged in the Kerala coastal region . And these have gone through multiple transitions with the arrival of the Portuguese , Dutch and English .
The real challenge is that most of the so called family history of Syrian Christian are simply story telling based on constructed or perceived or received myths based less on any evidence and more on enthusiasm to construct family tree to prove an heritage of great , aristocratic and upper caste . The family history writing as a cottage industry will be of interest to social anthropologist , though none of these family folklore got anything with evidence based history before few generations.
MADRASCOURIER.COM
In Kerala, Christianity is said to have arrived while Jesus Christ's apostles were still alive.

The challenge of Heritage Management in India

The challenge of Heritage Management in India is that there is hardly any heritage management here. The condition of most of our heritage monuments are really pathetic and many of them are poorly preserved . They are neither protected nor managed Many are in dilapidated condition. Examples are many. And we can be happy and proud that they are managed by ' our government ', and for many it hardly matters they are badly managed or in dilapidated conditions . And for many 'private sector ' is equivalent to 'evil ' , though in India private sector is also the major source of employment and engine of the economy . Many may also not believe in Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
Look at conditions of many Heritage Monuments .Many of the heritage structures are used for gambling and there are so much of destruction too. I have seen so many monuments where love birds scribbled their everlasting love or ruffians scratched the surface to mark their visit . There is hardly any security .
There are no basic facilities like toilets and many pee there itself .Many use heritage structures to consume alcohol and one can see so much littering and used liquor bottles . And we think they are being ' protected ' by ' our government .The fact of the matter is that the present government agency in charge of these does not have capacity or resources to very well manage thousands of our monuments .
There is nothing wrong in using CSR funds nor outsourcing the security and upkeep . Look at the pathetic conditions of museums in Kerala . Many of the museums are simply for namesake with hardly any visitors .Go and see Edakkal caves in Wayanad District of Kerala.  . There are quarries all around . There are hundreds of pathetic heritage monuments in India . There is also so much of corruption involved in 'restoration ' and 'preservation'.
I have visited almost all major heritage monuments in the world and one has to learn how many countries earn millions managing their heritage monuments .I have also visited some of the most celebrated monuments in India . And it is a shame to see the pathetic conditions of many of them. Something needs to be done .And fact of the matter is government department simply lack the capacity . And unlike many counties we don't have a specialized government heritage tourism management Agency .
When some of the services of passport or visa processing was outsourced ,there was a lot of hue and cry. But the fact of the matter is that it is much easier to get passport and visa now.

Public Policy Paradigms and Options - 1


Public Policies are primarily knowledge and analytical framework and process that help to govern the interface between the state, society and market. Public policy has philosophical, political, economic, technical and managerial dimensions. Public Policy operate at the level of theory and practice- and hence it is an arena of praxis - that requires constantly bridge ideas and action- and actions in to sustainable impact within the government, society and market.
The words Policy, police and polis ( city) - are from the same roots. It implies order of things and affairs in a city. Public Policies are firstly about public, people. Hence, they are about power-relations as well. Hence public policy is about ordering of power in a society in systematic manner, using knowledge, institutions , building core social consensus, ensuring larger common good in a society to ensure the legitimacy for those who govern and governed . In modern as well post modern society, public policy is the bridge that connect the state and society. This on the one hand helps to keep systems, and institutions revitalized and made relevant to the changing needs of a society in aligning with the changing context of economy, and politics. Public Policies that facilitate inclusion and participation of people in the process of governance as well enhances transparency and public accountability are now a part of the new social contract of politics and governance.
Within the context of government too, policies operate at multiple levels - from macro to micro. From broad policy paradigm to micro policy management and implementation at the level of community or local government . In the braoder sense , policies are statement of intentions for change. Secondly they become the primary software for bring change to a system or sector . At a higher level public policies are also broad meta narratives largely influence specific policy choices of a government or sector or institution.Therefore Public Policies exist as a paradigm , as a software for change and then as statement of intentions to change a particular system or sector or sub-sector. Hence Public Policy often get designed based on particular analytical knowledge framework based on certain ethics and assumptions about human beings, society , environment and state.
Public Policy drivers: Knowledge, Technology and Institutions
Depending on the context of the dominant power-relations within the economy ,market, and politics, the broad policy paradigm too change. One of the major livers for such changes is the shifts in technology. Because, in the modern world , all systems and institution framework are basically build on knowledge and technology. Knowledge framework and technological options in many ways influence each other. For example in the 1950s and even before, telegram was a major method of communication. And the entire paradigm was based on printing press, telephone , telegrams, typewriting machines. This was important as modes of technology influence communications. Modes of communications influence thinking as well as the institutions in the society. And at the core of government and society management system is the communicative paradigm. The knowledge paradigm of a policy is to large extent determined and influence by the communication and technology paradigm. This is due to two reasons. Firstly power operate through knowledge and communication.
Institutional power is always maintained through strategic use of knowledge, technology and communications. For example, till the end of 1980s, typewriting machine was core to the management and administration of the office. Short-hard and typewriting was the major methods through which management and administration were implemented. The core skills in those years was the typewriting and drafting skills. The most important documents were printed word. Law was basically printed word; orders were printed and signed.
Public Policy Paradigm : Welfare State bureaucracy and public administration
This mode of management of technology, communications and systems are also function of the larger policy paradigm, informed by political ideological framework. And there are normative or value framework that influenced that policy paradigm. For example, in the aftermath of the Second world war, the major policy paradigm were influenced by three broad ideas democracy, human rights and development. A developmental state, with an obligation to protect rights became a major paradigm of the social contract from the mid 1950s. This was broadly driven by the Keynesian analytical knowledge framework of a market oriented welfare state. or driven by state driven welfare socialist model largely inspired by the Soviet model of Centralized five year plans. In the aftermath of the destruction and financial troubles following the Second Wold War, welfare state was the only imperative.
Hence, public policy paradigm from the 1950s to early 1980s were driven by a state-centric paradigm of politics. Public Policies were seen as a domain of bureaucracy and public administration. Though there were state driven socialist welfare public administration model and the market oriented welfare state model, the key approach was that public policy is within the internal affair of the government largely run by civil service or bureaucratic elites. The assumption was 'state' knows what are the needs of the people- and the state respond to the needs and challenges within the society. In both welfare state models, there was also a politics of patronizing involved. Often this politics of patronizing was driven by a nexus of political administrators and bureaucratic elites with in both capitalist and socialists countries, though their modes of operation were different. Due to this public policies were also seen as the exclusive domain of those who were involved in public administration within the government. Within the state-centric model of government and public administration, bureaucracy became the drivers and primary custodians of public policy - and often became the soft -ware of a 'command- and control' modes of power to 'administer' the society through "Law- and order'.
Any government is run on two important things : Law and Money( budget- public finance)- and it is the public policy that became the bridge that link law, money and order. Without money, there can not be law or order. Hence, economic and finance policies are imperative to collect taxes and spent taxes. And Law- and order often get implemented through systems and institutions - and both requires public policy to manage them in an effective manner.
Crisis of the state-centric model of public policy
This state-centric welfare state model faced a crisis in the 1970s and 1980s. This was also a crisis of the policy paradigm that legitimased the welfare state model : either market oriented welfare state ,or socialist state driven welfare state model. The first one was largely driven by social liberalism and the second model was driven by socialist centralized planing paradigm . Both these models faced two different kinds of crisis. The first crisis was that state in effect operated as a structured and layered bureaucracy . It is a top down management led by political executive and bureaucracy. From the relatively less number of bureaucracy and structures in the 1950s, the bureaucracy became too big that in effect swallowed the very welfare state that created it. The big bulging welfare bureaucracy became all powerful and too big to manage with the resources available. The shift in technology of automobiles changed the paradigm first in the 1970s. Bureaucracy became too big to manage itself or the government or society. And a huge chunk of budget were sucked and managed by the bureaucracy . And public policies were basically seen as maintenance operation of a public administration system of a self-perpetuating bureaucratic power. The state-centric welfare model faced the twin crisis of too big a bureaucracy to manage effectively and a crisis of public finance due to increasing expense to maintain bureaucracy as well as increasing of public debt.
Saturation of bureaucracy and welfare state
This is what led to what I call the saturation bureaucracy and saturation of state-centric welfare model. The very welfare state model , with investment in education and health created a new aspiring middle class which expected new decent professional jobs, and living wages. The oil crisis in the 1970s led to the huge oil price hike creating a crisis of public finance and balance of payment (primarily due to the huge growth in automobile technology). This saturation of state due to the a big self- perpetuating bureaucracy and the lack of budget to manage the system, created a political and moral crisis in the late seventies. This led to the first wave of paradigm shift in public policy between the years 1977- to 1982. All over the world there was this big shift. This shit was due to the saturation of welfare state bureaucracy where the quality of public services decreased tremendously. While in many societies, government was the major source of employment, by the 1980s , governments were too full of the existing bureaucracy simply did not have the money of space to provide new employment or jobs. And in many countries market was too slow largely driven by traditional manufacturing - line- management model, also could not provide jobs. The very welfare state-model that provided education and health to create the aware middle class also raised the expectations that could not be handled by an increasingly ineffective bureaucratic state.
Emergence of educated aspiring new middle class of the 1980s
At the root of political protests and demands of the 1980s were these aspiring and politically assertive middle class in different parts of the world- and they questioned the logic of state-centric models and the challenged ineffective bureaucracy led by political executive bureaucrats This is actually that led to the implosion of the soviet union. Chinese political leadership understood it too fast- and changed the policy paradigm from a state-centric socialist model to a market oriented welfare model focusing on creating new jobs for the aspiring educated middle class that emerged in the 1970s and 1980s. This is precisely that Chinese model survived. On the other hand in USSR. a self perpetuating single party and governmental bureaucracy became ineffective in delivering quality services and completely failed to meet the aspirations of the new aspring middle class. This lead to the eventual fall of the state-driven socialist model. Because, stat-driven model socialism ended up as top-down command and control bureaucracy that absorbed most of the money, leaving the people deprived and angry.
Saturation of the European markets
It is not only the state-centric socialist model that faced the crisis. Many of the liberal market oriented welfare-state model in capitalist societies too faced a crisis. Here the crisis was due to the saturation of the market itself. In Europe, apart from the government sector and bureaucracy, the growth of manufacturing sector generated employment for the baby -boom generation in the aftermath of the Second world war. However, the problem was that market became saturated in the 1980s, as the market in Europe could no longer absorb the products of European countrie- and many poor countries also could not afford to buy them. This saturation and crisis of the markets in Europe and to certain extent the US also created impetuous for change in the 1980s

Role of Government and roles of Private Sector : Public Policy Choices.


There are many think that the government must to do everything. Though in democratic context, government is supposed to be that of people, in effect government consist of a bloated and often self-preserving bureaucracy that often is neither responsive nor accountable. Such bureaucratic establishments often lacks the capacity or expertise to do everything. In fact , Government must not do everything. Private sector and corporate sector has a legitimate role in a democratic society. Civil society and civil society organisations too got such an important role in ensuring rights, freedom and justice and making government responsive. Many who think themselves are 'socialists' are still driven by the old discredited model Soviet type 'statism' and they tend to think that anything by government is 'public' by definition, though they are controlled by a political -bureaucratic elites. Government must do its basic functions.
There are some basic functions of the democratic state and governments :
Ensuring physical , social , environmental ,political and economic security and safety of all people in its territory from external , internal factors and natural disasters.;
Ensuring rule of law and law and order.
Ensuring free and fair elections .
Ensuring balance of power between Legislature , Executive and Judiciary . Ensuring basic services like access to affordable education , health , water , sanitation and public roads and transport(including Railways) and communications: ensuring equal access to justice and human rights of all people , particularly the marginalized .
Ensuring the defense of its territory .
Ensuring the protection of environment, natural resources and heritage .
Ensuring fiscal and economic management and creating economic opportunities for decent employment and economic and social well being of all. Ensuing government institutions/systems are inclusive , responsive , capable, transparent and accountable .
Ensuing to be responsible country in international affairs , promoting trade , peace, protection of planet , human rights and supporting a world without poverty and discrimination .
I don't think each and everything needs to be done by the government At a time when private sector did not have capacity , government got in to many areas including manufacturing and enterprise development. However many of these ended up as ineffective and loss making enterprises as they became fiefdoms of ruling political and bureaucratic elites . Government may seek the support of private sector or civil society organisation when it does not have capacity to deliver or when it fails due to the lack of capacity of bureaucracy to be responsive and effective.
Many consider socialism as statisam and statisam as governentalism . Socialism and social democracy for me is ensuing distributive justice resulting in economic and social justice and human rights for all. This is done through progressive taxation, and special social justice policies to protect and support historically, socially ,and economically marginalized groups .
Social Democracy is not about statism and governmentalism of everything controlled by a political -bureaucratic elites , on 'behalf ' of people .
The fact of the matter is that despite an elected political executive , the real operationalized power of government is with a self preserving bureaucracy .And often they are least accountable . Examples are too many .
I don't think private initiative , enterprise or private sector are evil. I don't think private property is a sin. I don't think corporate sector per se are all villains. The development of private sector , healthy competition , robust market , and economy are important for ensuing gainful employment and social and economic well being of a nation .Private initiatives are so important for innovations in research , science and technology .
However the problem is when economic elites and political elites build nexus with media and bureaucratic elites to facilitate crony capitalism that undermine freedom , justice and rights of people leading to social , economic and political inequality . Often such nexus and crony corporatism leads to restriction of freedom , and lead to fascist tendencies. Hence though I fully support healthy private sector and market , I am not for monopoly capitalism and crony capitalism that undermine freedom of people and sustainability of planet .
Many who works even private companies think private sector is evil . I don't think so. Private Sector need too to be accountable , responsible and work within a democratic system
Many who consider anything private as evil are often government parasites( political elites and their cronies) and think government has all answer for all our problem .Many think government should do every thing under the sun. Many think government should be the chief patronizing agent and distributor of all kinds of patronage .
There are things government must do. However , there are areas where government simply can not be effective and efficient largely due to bureaucratic apathy and lack of capacity and innovation . For example ,twenty years ago, our Airports were in a bad condition, not managed well by the tired bureaucratic establishment. Now we have some of the best airports at the international level, managed by private actors . Look at the quality of Kochi Airport .Mumbai ,Delhi ,Bangalore .The quality and performance of private airlines are indeed better . However government also has a role to ensure affordable public transport and railways as it is to ensure that all people have access to safe , effective and affordable transport .
Government must do what they must do as a democratic obligation. And both private sector as well as civil society too got an equally important role to play to ensure a free societies with innovations , creativity and human rights for all.